Venmo: Pay & Request

Venmo is one of the most used mobile payments apps in the US with more than 40 million users as of 2019. With this increase in popularity, the app has similarly grown in features over the years — from shared payments to spending history. However, certain aspects of the app remain stagnant, and as a result, create friction for its users. This case study addresses their sticky pay & request features.

Client

Personal

Type

Case Study

Role

Product Design

Overview

As a Venmo user who has accidentally sent someone money more often than I’d like to admit, it’s an unpleasant experience. Thus, I decided to investigate if others share the same problems I have with the app and explore ways to improve it.

Preliminary Research — Sample Survey

To make sure that the problems I had were real problems, I created a survey with a series of 10 questions. This was to get an overview of the users and whether the problems I had resonated with them. I sent the survey to my friends and had them share it among their networks to get immediate feedback.

Some takeaways from the 25 participants:

Persona

Based on my analysis of the survey results and online research, I came up with three attributes shared by most of the survey participants who had the problems: young, tech-savvy, professional. Or as I like to call it, the “working millennials.” From those attributes, I created a persona for the “working millennial” to help guide my thinking process and design decisions.

User Research — Interviews & Usability Testing

I interviewed 8 of my friends and colleagues who were in the same demographic as Amy to get their general thoughts on using the app. Furthermore, I asked them scenario questions related to paying or requesting money to understand their motivations and needs.

After the interview, I asked them to do a mini-usability test of the app to get a deeper understanding of how they use it first hand. I gave my participants two scenarios with specific tasks and asked them to walk me through how they would complete the tasks.

I recorded each session and broke down each task on a timeline to capture the amount of time it took the participants to complete a task. The point of the exercise was to observe their current behaviors using the app and how those behaviors could affect the success of completing specific tasks. Also, I asked them to pinpoint areas where they felt the app failed to help them achieve their tasks.

Identifying and Prioritizing Pain Points

Using the data collected through the interviews and usability testing, I narrowed it down to the four biggest pain points that most users shared.

Pain Point #1: Unconventional pay/request money experience. Users felt that asking them to pay or request after entering the amount takes some time to get used to.

Pain point #2: Similar UI for pay/request money causes confusion. Users have a hard time differentiating the pay & request buttons being so similar that they often mistake one over the other. They also don’t like how their focus has to go all the way to the bottom of the screen to press “pay” or “request.”

Paint Point #3: Style for dollar amount input is hard to see. Users feel the light gray and small font size for the dollar amount makes it hard to catch mistakes if they were to input the incorrect amount.

Pain Point #4 Mistakes irreversible and require time to fix. Users who have accidentally sent someone money instead of requesting described their experience as annoying because it ends up taking up more time than expected to resolve the problem. However, once the problem has been resolved, they tend to have a more positive association of the experience.

Users who have accidentally been sent money by someone else described their experience as something fun, but note that they are still annoyed about having to pay back the money afterward.

User Flow

Using the data collected through the interviews and usability testing, I mapped out the existing user flow to pay & request money and highlighted places where the pain points occur. The purpose was to identify opportunities to improve the experience.

Solution Development

With the four biggest pain points identified, and their locations mapped, I brainstormed some ideas on how I wanted them to be solved. Below are some ideas I think would provide the most impact to the app’s experience:

Change the flow so that the user determines whether they want to pay or request money from the start.
Change the design of pay or request buttons so that they are not entirely similar.
Make it clearer to the users whether they are paying or requesting money, the amount of the transaction, and the recipients.
Make the confirmation more prominent so that users are more aware of their actions and are given more assurance of their actions.

Along with those ideas, I mapped our two new user flows that would alleviate the pain points users had. User Flow #1 — Low cost, high impact. This flow mirrors the current existing flow in the app with an additional layer for the confirmation step. 

User Flow #2 — High cost, high impact. This flows shifts the pay/request step to the beginning, followed by adding recipients and amount.

Wireframe Sketches

I came up with three different solutions, since I think it’s important to try different ways to solve the problem. After all, the design process is an experiment, and I didn’t want to develop tunnel vision with just one solution.

Hi-Fi Mockups & Prototypes

Once I had the sketches, it was time to implement my solutions! I imported them into Figma and began mocking up the hi-fi screens and creating the prototypes for each of them. I took Venmo’s existing UI components into consideration, reusing what I could to keep the visual design consistent.

Solution #1: Better Confirmation & Button Differentiation

Pain points addressed: 1) differentiation between pay & request buttons and 2) more reassurance with confirmation modal

Request and pay buttons are 15% bigger compared to the original for visibility.
Money and receipt emojis are added for each button to create a subtle difference between the two so that users do not just see two blue buttons.
A confirmation modal focuses the user’s attention to the action that they are performing.
Header text highlights if the user is paying or requesting.
Enhancement: the list of top 10 people are condensed into a left/right swipe-able bar for accessibility.

Solution #2: Action First, Add Recipients and Amount After

Pain points addressed: 1) actions are established at the beginning and 2) stylized dollar amount input is prominent and easy to notice mistakes.

Clicking on the form icon prompts the user if they want to request or send money.
“Send” replaces “pay” since it is a collective term for more use cases such as sending money to a friend a gift.
Font size for dollar amount is 4x more prominent than the original for visibility.
Font colors are added, green for requesting money and red for sending money.
This alerts the user of their current action before they confirm the transaction.
Confirm button is in the same location as the request button to promote the double-tap as a compound confirmation gesture.

Solution #3: Swipe Up to Send, Down to Request

Pain point addressed: 1) different gestures to send or request money

Form is in a card to accommodate the swipe up/down gestures. These two gestures require the user to be actively thinking about their actions instead of having a quick tap.
The user holds and releases to confirm which adds another layer of gestures the user has to perform to send or request money.
Header text for confirmation highlights if the user is sending or requesting money.

Feedback & Validation

I showed my prototypes to 6 of the people I interviewed and asked them to perform the same two tasks they did previously. All participants were receptive of the different solutions provided:

While there were minor stumbles, 4/6 were able to complete the tasks slightly better than Venmo’s current flow.

Solution #1 is the most successful. Participants like it because it enhances the experience of users already familiar with Venmo instead of having them learn how to adjust to the new flow.
Participants liked the idea of swiping or down as a way to send or request money with solution #3. However, they had trouble trying to perform the gestures correctly (I think it’s partly because of the limitation with the prototype).

Solution #2 is confusing for some because of the new pay/request buttons. It was still interesting to see people react to the idea of choosing an action at the beginning of the process.
Participants like different things from each of the three solutions. Two suggested an iteration with solution #1 confirmation modal and solution #2 large and colored dollar input font.

What's Next

Since this was a weekend side project, it is difficult to push it into the validation phase. However, if possible, I would do the following: iterate and validate to see whether or not the solutions solve Venmo’s stickiness with its pay & request feature effectively and efficiently.

Additionally, I think it would be awesome to explore potential ways to reduce the annoyance of making mistakes such as an “oops please send me back the money I accidentally sent you” feature. Or potentially implement a 10 sec period to undo a transaction like how Gmail has implemented in their mailing feature.